I recently ran into an issue where a Server 2016 ran out of space and parts of it became corrupt. Running sfc /scannow showed that errors were found and could not be repaired. The corruption caused some odd behaviour on the server.
I tried the below commands which looked promising but SFC /scannow reported corruption and mentioned that there were some files it could not repair. Even after a reboot the server was still behaving very odd.
1. Run dism /online /cleanup-image /scanhealth 2. Run dism /online /cleanup-image /checkhealth 3. Run dism /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth 4. Mount the Windows Server 2016 ISO as a drive (E: in this case) 5. WIM number is usually 1 for server and 2 for desktop 5. Run dism /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth /source:WIM:E:\sources\install.wim:1 /limitaccess 6. Run sfc /scannow 7. Run Windows Update
If the above fails perform a repair install of windows and choose “Keep personal files and apps”. This will preserve the installed apps and settings. Run a windows update after to bring it up to date.